Learn about inspiring applications in 3D printings and the remarkable outcomes that follow.

How To Become A Filament Extrusion Expert!

We have some exciting news today that a lot of our clients have been waiting to hear. Filament extrusion is about to get much, MUCH simpler. And not because there’s a new 3devo machine on the block. This time we’re making it possible for you to do more with your Filament Maker or SHR3D IT. We are presenting DevoTraining, a series of in-depth workshops designed for manufacturers, researchers, educators, or anyone with interest in 3D printing and material development.

See also: Why should you learn about filament extrusion

Your own hands-on filament extrusion workshop!

What makes DevoTraining unique, and why would you choose it over other filament extrusion courses? For years now, we’ve been working to make material development accessible for various industries and applications. Simplicity was the idea behind our newly upgraded, result-oriented filament makers, and it is the main idea behind our hands-on workshops as well. The DevoTraining programs are the first of their kind in the industry. They won’t just give you a broad overview of filament extrusion. They’re designed to address YOUR needs and to fill any gaps that may be preventing you from getting the results you want from your 3devo machine.

The demand for unique 3d printing materials is ever-growing, which requires new knowledge on how to process it. With DevoTraining, we offer the answers to those innovators who seek to take matters into their own hands.

At our hands-on workshops, you’ll deal with the actual, practical realities of making filament at your desk. You’ll also understand how to use your 3devo machine to develop or recycle the materials you want. And because we’ll train you at our Utrecht headquarters, you’ll have access to all the equipment, materials and resources you need.

Different courses for different requirements:

 

extrusion, filament maker, infographic, 3devo, polymer

 

You can choose a DevoTraining program based on your existing filament extrusion knowledge, material development needs, or the specific applications for which you’re hoping to use your 3devo machine. We are currently offering 3 options, ranging from half-day modules to two-day programs.

  1. DevoNovice – Your perfect introduction to making filament
    DevoNovice is a carefully structured 4-hour course that will get you started with desktop filament extrusion. This workshop is designed for beginners with little or no prior knowledge of material development. It’ll cover the basics of desktop filament extrusion and introduce you to the parts, features and basic material settings of your 3devo Precision or Composer filament maker.
  2. DevoProficient – Taking you a step closer to your material making goals
    Participants with some knowledge or experience in filament making and 3D printing can opt for DevoProficient. This is a full-day (8-hour) workshop that offers intermediate-level training. Want to learn how to mix or recycle plastics, and increase your existing knowledge of materials? If so, this is the perfect course for you. Not just that, DevoProficient will also bring you up to speed on maintaining and troubleshooting your 3devo machine.
  3. DevoMaster – Helping experts unlock new possibilities in filament making
    DevoMaster is a 2-day (16-hour) workshop designed for extrusion experts. If you’re already well-versed with filament making and want to take your knowledge a step further, choose this course. This advanced training program will help you work with new materials and innovate more with your 3devo machine. Plus, you’ll get to bounce your ideas off our material scientists. In terms of course content, DevoMaster has advanced modules on material mixing, plastic recycling, troubleshooting, and maintenance. And there’s a bonus: fully customized modules that you can have us tailor to your specific requirements!

See also: DevoTraining Course Comparision

How to Register for a DevoTraining program?

From extrusion experts to 3D printing enthusiasts, the DevoTraining workshops are open to all. Are you looking to understand your 3devo machine a bit better? Or would you like to learn more before you purchase a desktop filament maker? Come join us at Utrecht for an immersive, hands-on workshop led by our material scientists and engineers. To choose a program that best fits your needs, check out the course comparisons, details and FAQs on the DevoTraining webpage. Then get in touch with our sales team who’ll be happy to answer your questions and schedule your workshop. See you soon!

Do you still have any unanswered questions about filament extrusion? Contact us via email, and we will be happy to discuss it in further detail or visit our blog if you’d like to know more.

Why You Should Learn About Filament Extrusion

Quite often, filament is seen as a simple material used in 3D printing. However, learning filament extrusion and understanding its ways can lead to greater knowledge of 3D printing as a whole. By taking your knowledge one step further, you’ll learn the importance of filament extrusion and the many benefits that come along with it.

As 3D printing technology advances, so does the additives involved. We’re here to help you understand why learning filament extrusion can benefit you and your company. But first, we need to start off with the basics.

What is Filament Extrusion?

extrusion, infographic, 3devo,

As you may or may not know, 3D printers use filament, or thermoplastic feedstock, as the raw material for 3D prints. Filament comes in all different shapes and forms depending on its application. But before the filament is loaded into a 3D printer, it needs to be extruded.

Filament extrusion is the process whereby a machine converts raw plastic pellets into filament wires. Failed 3D prints can also be shredded and reused as a substitute for these raw plastic pellets. Below is a brief desktop demonstration:

Usually, large-scale extrusion machines are used for this mass-produced process. However, there has been a rise in demand of small-scale desktop machines. The setup process is fairly simple in just 5 steps:

    1. Insert the pellets (granulates) into a “feed bin” or hopper.
    2. Select the desired settings for the outcome of the filament.
    3. Start the machine’s extrusion process, which includes heating and extruding the granulate.
    4. Wait a few hours until the process is completed.
    5. Once cooled the filament is wound onto a spool and ready for printing.

This process can change depending on the requirements of the filament (large scale or small scale), but it’s still the best method to create clean and accurate results. The mass-produced spools of filament you buy at the store or online have already gone through all of this. With desktop extrusion, there is now a way to understand how filament works, how to modify the materials involved and quite often – how to improve the filament to meet your specific needs.

What Are the Benefits of Filament Extrusion?

 

extrusion, filament maker, infographic, 3devo, polymer

It might seem like an unusual skill to learn. There are hundreds of variants of filament available out now on the market. From PETG to Bio PE, all types of filament can be easily purchased for your 3D printing needs. But then you could say the same thing about buying a plastic part over  3D printing it yourself.

People use 3D printers because they want quickly build a new part, or perhaps the part they want doesn’t exist yet. Extrusion plays the same role for filament.

Learning filament extrusion gives one the ability to understand how polymers react under certain conditions, and how their physical and chemical properties play a fundamental role in your 3D prints.

Individuals or educational facilities who focus on polymer studies and experiments would find filament extrusion extremely useful because of these benefits:

  • Rapidly validate the properties and capabilities of your filament and make changes if needed
  • Combine different types of granulate and additives to create your optimal filament within a few hours
  • Reducing the costs of testing new forms of filament each time

Quite often you might find using off-the-shelf filament can do a similar job for your 3D printing needs. However, learning how to do it in your own environment opens more possibilities for yourself, your company and/or your educational facility.

Why Should You Learn Filament Extrusion?

3devo, extruder, learnAs you can see, a process like this within your company can be quite useful. However, having to rely on a third party to set-up, maintain and produce the filament for you does have its drawbacks. Why not take the matter into your own hands, and learn about the process yourself?

 

Receiving filament extrusion training also comes with its own benefits:

  • Create higher quality filament suited for your needs. Sometimes it’s hard to explain exactly how your filament should turn out, now you’re able to do it all on your own.
  • Improved setup and processing time when using the machine. Once you’ve mastered your skills, setting up, cleaning and overall processing times become a lot quicker.
  • Easily experiment with challenging granulate compositions. Once you’re proficient in extrusion, understanding how different polymers work experiments become a lot easier.
  • More confidence in using the machine. Often people might get nervous about using an extrusion device, but once you understand all the steps involved, extrusion becomes a breeze.
  • Quickly and easily find the settings you need. You don’t need to rely on a business’s schedule and priorities.
  • Your machine will last much longer as you will understand correct maintenance procedures.
  • Quickly troubleshoot issues with the process instead of relying on external assistance. No more downtime due to waiting for someone else to fix the issue, which can range from hours to days.

It makes a lot of sense. Outsourcing, while useful at times, can get costly and often takes a lot longer to fulfill your needs. If you are still unsure about receiving training, look into your current working environment. The questions below should be able to help you.

Are You the Right Person to Learn Filament Extrusion?

Filament extrusion and 3D printing almost go hand-in-hand. However, you can live without any knowledge of filament extrusion and still be proficient in the latter. It comes down to what industry you are in, and if you’d need this knowledge on a regular basis.

Some questions below might aid you in knowing whether or not learning filament extrusion is right for you:

  • Are you a lecturer/professor at a university or any other educational institution that focuses on polymer studies?
  • Are you an individual/team in a research and development department that often experiments with varieties of filament?
  • Is large-scale extrusion too expensive and inflexible for your current needs?
  • Do you want to educate people on recycling using failed 3D prints or recyclable materials?
  • Do you work in the automotive, manufacturing, education, or materials industry where 3D printing is used as an on-going process?

The questions above might be relevant to your company as well. Both large and small companies can greatly benefit from having someone skilled in filament extrusion.

How Can You Learn Filament Extrusion?

Luckily here at 3devo, filament extrusion is not only our expertise but also our passion. We provide everything you need to learn filament extrusion. Based in Utrecht, Netherlands, we’re able to provide assistance in multiple ways. Currently, we offer:

  • International live demos at additive manufacturing events.
  • Private training days for professionals/lecturers at our HQ in Utrecht, NL.
  • Support Platform with helpful articles and videos on filament extrusion.

Unfortunately, we don’t offer online courses. As we’re focused on providing hands-on training to our workshop participants at our headquarters in Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Do you still have any unanswered questions about filament extrusion? Simply, contact us via email and we will be happy to discuss it in further detail or visit our blog if you’d like to know more.

PET Recycling – From Bottle to Filament

Recycling. A word often related to large companies receiving tons and tons of paper or plastic in an effort to reduce our carbon footprint. However if we look at plastic bottles for instance, humans buy a million plastic bottles per minute, and 91% of all plastic is not recycled. This article is going to cover what makes plastic recycling so important, how to recycle PET and the future of recycling in 3D printing.

What is PET Recycling?

Focusing on plastic bottles here, they have one huge advantage – unlimited recycling potential. PET is one of the few polymers that can be recycled into the same form over and over again. Think of it as a closed-loop recycling solution.

PET recycling loop
The “closed-loop” of PET recycling. Image via PETCO

Recycled PET, or rPET, can be used to make many new products. This can range from clothing, automotive parts, packaging as well as bottles for food/non-food products. Depending on the application required, rPET will be blended with the original PET.

What Are The Uses of Recycled PET (rPET)?

As mentioned above, rPET has many great uses, which includes:

  • Food containers
  • Polyester carpet fiber
  • Fabric for T-shirts
  • Athletic shoes
  • Luggage and upholstery
  • Sweaters and fiberfill for sleeping bags and winter coats
  • Industrial strapping
  • Sheet and film
  • Automotive parts
  • New PET containers
Some recycled PET products

Using rPET in place of the normal or virgin PET has substantial environmental impacts as well as reducing overall energy consumption.

Creating Our Own Filament from Plastic Bottles

Now that we’ve covered the background of recycling PET, how exactly does one go about doing the actual recycling? The one method is simply going to your local recycling company and dumping your plastic waste there, or having it picked up at home if that company provides a pick-up functionality. The other method though is a bit more rewarding – doing it yourself.

We wanted to test of normal plastic bottles can be turned into 3D printing filament. The following is a quick summary of our tests to turn around 30 bottles into filament.

  • Water bottles were collected, cleaned (properly) and any external caps or seals were also removed
  • The bottles were then vacuum sealed and heated to reduce their size
  • Once cooled the bottles were cut into smaller chunks with a saw and a pair of scissors
  • After that, the pieces were shredded into tiny pieces using our SHR3D IT
  • The pieces were then dried at a temperature of 160°C for 4 hours
  • The PET was then fed into our Next filament extruder
  • After multiple tests at different nozzle diameters and temperatures, our team ended up with a great result of PET filament
PET Filament Final Result
Final results of the filament

Click for the complete test and the different results.

The Future of Plastic Recycling in 3D Printing

The biggest issue that faces 3D printing recycled filament – dirt. With the above experiment, just cleaning those bottles took a great deal of effort. Now imagine doing it with tons of plastic, often coming from dumps that have been contaminated all forms of impurities.

Also, one has to take note that different types of plastic produce different types of filament. High-density polyethylene — shampoo bottles, for example — are relatively easy to convert into filament, but it’s difficult to print with because it shrinks more than other plastics as it cools. On the other hand, PET, prints well but is brittle, making it difficult to spool as filament.

Recently, we saw the US Department of Defense (DoD) is exploring 3D printing feedstock made from plastic containers that have been left on the battlefield, which can hopefully be reproduced in other government sectors. There’s also Ethical Filament, a company focused on promoting the concept of recycling to produce ethical 3D printing filament that is sold to improve the livelihoods of waste pickers and their communities worldwide. Then there’s the Perpetual Plastic Project (PPP), which is an installation which can directly recycle old plastic drinking cups into 3D printing gadgets as well as other plastic products if needed.

While there is more and more aware of using recycled filament for 3D printing, we still have a long way to go. Hopefully, with the rise in 3D printing over the last few years, more emphasis is being placed on plastic recycling.

 

PEI – Extruding The High-Performance Polymer

PEI, Polyetherimide, is one of the more rare polymers we have tested here at 3devo. That, however, does not mean it is any less useful. This high performance engineering thermoplastic, usually with an amber to transparent colour, makes a great name for itself in various high-demanding applications. It can often replace metal or other strong substances thanks to its impressive chemical and mechanical properties, but how well does it extrude? In this article we will make a brief overview of PEI as well as our extrusion tests for this strong polymer.

Filament Summary

PEI’s characteristics include extreme rigidity, high strength (even at elevated temperatures), long term heat resistance, dimensional stability and good electrical properties. It is easy to spot due to its light amber colour (unfilled) and is usually semi-transparent. Like other amorphous, high temperature resins, PEI has outstanding dimensional stability and is inherently flame retardant.

PEI does resist chemicals, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols and halogenated solvents. Creep resistance over the long term allows PEI to replace metal and other materials in many structural applications. It is also widely used in electronics because of its good arc resistance and dielectric constant. Furhermore, PEI is UFDA/USDA and USP class VI compliant.

Applications

PEI used in vape mouthpieces (left) to plastic manifolds (right) via Carville Plastics
  • Reusable machined components
  • Aircraft/Automotive instrumentation
  • Plastic Manifolds
  • Electrical insulators
  • Electrical component housings

Advantages

  • Great thermal stability (continuous use temperature of 365F/180° C)
  • High strength
  • Continuous rigidity and strength to 340F (170°C)
  • Dimensionally stable
  • Excellent flame and heat resistance (UL 94 V-0 rated)
  • Consistent dielectric properties over a range of frequencies
  • Good acid resistance
  • High resistance to autoclave sanitizing
  • Low moisture absorption
  • Can withstand steam autoclaving
  • Inherently flame retardant
  • Certified Grades for food-contact and bio-compatibility applications

Disadvantages

  • Can be expensive
  • Not a lot of colour choices (amber or sometimes transparent)

Extruding PEI (ULTEM 1010 Resin)

Here at 3devo we were able to acquire some PEI for extrusion tests (Ultem 1010 Resin was used). Because of its high strength factors we were interested to see what the results would be. Below is an overview of the whole process, however, for a more detailed report please contact us via the sales contact page.

Preparation

PEI resin (left) and adding it into the hopper (right)

First cleaning of the extruder had to take place. Using ASACLEAN™ GL2, followed by ASACLEAN™ PX2, we were able to clean the device to prevent any impurities impacting the results. Once both materials had run through the device in order to properly clean it, the heaters were all set to the same temperature (160 °C).

Observation Indicators

There are three important things to look out for when extruding new filament for the first time:

  • How does the filament look? Are there any signs of bubbles/holes, die lines, weld
    lines, melt fracture or warpage?
  • Is the flow similar to that of standard PLA (when using the same rpm)?
  • Is it possible to pull the material without any trouble (the material does not stick to
    the puller wheel and does not break as a result of the force of the puller)?

Extrusion Summary

Extruding PEI (left) and the results (right)

After multiple tests, we concluded that PEI is able to be successfully extruded with the NEXT. The tests we ran determined that PEI should be extruded below 370 °C (but not too low) in order to prevent bubbles and holes from forming, and that proper cleaning methods should be used in order to determine the best results.

Conclusion

In the end, PEI was a very interesting polymer to test out compared to other ones we have tested in the past. Its high strength, rigidity and thermal stability meant that a lot of care had to be taken when running the tests. PEI though is a great filament and very useful, especially in aerospace and automotive applications.

Zortrax Filament – Extruding the Filament

Zortrax is a name renowned for precision engineering. Most famous for their exclusive line of 3D printers, namely the M300 and M200, creating high quality prints with ease. However, Zortrax also shine in their range of filaments. These all boast great qualities and are ideal for a range of uses from prototypes to decorative elements.

range-zortrax
Zortrax range of 3D printers (photo via Zortrax).

We soon decided to focus on one of their more popular filaments: Z-ULTRAT. Therefore, we wanted to see how well it would extrude, and what use it could be for you or your business.

Filament Summary

Z-ULTRAT filament (photo via Zortrax).

The Z-ULTRAT is no ordinary filament, designed purely for its own Zortrax M200 3D Printer. Its main features (high hardness and durability) make it great for prototyping mechanical parts, architectural models and design prototypes. Below are its key features:

Name Z-ULTRAT 3D Printing Filament Cool Grey 1.75mm 800g
Filament Material ABS
Printing technology LPD (Layer Plastic Deposition)
Dedicated device Zortrax M200 3D Printer
Features
  • Durable and strong
  • High hardness level
  • Low elasticity
  • Low level of deformation
Weight 1 kg (2.2 lb) gross wt. / 800 g (1.76 lb) net. wt.
Efficient melting point for 3D printing 269 – 279 °C [516 – 534 F]
Glass Transition Temperature 144 °C [291 F]
Vicat Softening Temperature 130 °C [266 F]
Thermal Expansion Minimal
Odor Nearly odorless
Hazards Product does not present any hazard while operating

For more information visit the official Zortrax Z-ULTRAT page.

While these are all good features, it is not so easy for extrusion. Especially when comparing it to PLA. The next step will look at testing how well the filament extrudes using our filament extruder.

Extruding Z-ULTRAT 3D Printing Filament

failed-prints
Failed prints used for testing.

Pre-Conditions

The Regular NEXT 1.0 was used for the tests, and was set to 220 °C across all three sections. The purpose for using the regular extruder as opposed to the Advanced version, is due to the extrusion screw of the model. It has been previously observed that the Regular screw, lacking the pineapple mixing station, is generating more pressure. Better nozzle flow is a result of this.

The machine is pre-loaded with HDPE. This is to ensure the extrusion barrel and screw are clean and performing at an optimum level upon receiving the Zortrax ABS. In order to remove all contaminants, the machine was left to run HDPE for an hour. The filament was added after this step.

Results

Numerous tests were completed using different settings in order to achieve industry-standard results. Below is a graph showing off the stability over time:

filament-thickness
Filament thickness results over time after extrusion.

In the end, the filament became stable at: 1- 275 / 2- 280 / 3 – 270 at speeds of 5rpm.

before-and-after
Left to right: shredded filament into the extruder, final result of the Z-ULTRAT

The filament produced better results after changing the speed to 5rpm, with only slight deviations (still within 100 microns) over 35-40 minutes. As a result, the test was a success. This was because a thickness of 1.75mm is not easy to extrude, as more control is needed. Also noted that ABS is harder to extrude when compared to other filaments such as PLA.

Conclusion

robotic-arm
Zortrax Robotic Arm printed using the M200.

The Zortrax range of 3D printers and filaments offer fantastic end results. Mechanical parts, casing elements for testing and even consumer and educational product prototypes – all are possible, with complimentary colours to go with. Furthermore, you have the option of recycling your prints after you are done. This means both businesses and printing enthusiasts alike will be able to take full advantage of these great products.

The Benefits of 3D Printing in Education

For many people living in this generation, subjects in school were not very – visual. Math problems and science experiments were done using textbooks, practising problems and the occasional science experiment (gone wrong). Schools and other education facilities involved problems that were often impractical. But recently technology has started to help matters. From calculators to computer-aided design, we could do problems beyond our simple capabilities. Now with the introduction of 3D printers and filament extrusion in the education environment, we are starting to improve how scholars interact with the world around them.

What Took So Long?

Planning the next big idea is now much easier. Image via Unsplash

It wasn’t until recently that 3D printers became more obvious in school and universities. The main cause for this is that pricing structures are now more affordable. Luckily there are companies out there trying to solve this problem.

Take for example Airworlf 3D, who want their AXIOM 3D printer used in schools as much as possible. This is thanks to its low cost and ease of use. What is great is that the printer is being used in schools all over the world. M.I.T., USC Roski School of Fine Arts, Cerritos College,  Florida State University, Jenkins Middle School (CO), and Huntington Beach High Schools (CA) are to name a few. Next is the Makerbot Academy, a project to help get a 3D printer into every US school.

Another cost to overcome is the price of the filament for the 3D printers. Most companies are trying to find cheap ways for schools to get filament, but it is not always easy. Here at 3devo we are trying to make redoing prints more accessible. Thanks to the NEXT and now the new SHR3D IT, schools would be able to shred prints and create new filament at the end of the day or week. This in turn reduces long-term spending.

A few years ago, price may have been a barrier for education facilities, but this is no longer the case. Thanks to reduced printer costs and faster adoption rates around the world, it is now easier for schools to afford 3D printers. But does having a printer in every class benefit the students, both young and old?

Make Learning Fun Again

Additive Manufacturing – the classes you’ll never skip

If you can think back to your school days, most of you would have had that one crazy science teacher, trying his or her best to make classes fun and enjoyable. In this process, you also tended to learn a lot too. The only issue, besides many safety violations, is practical experiments were often very limited. Subjects such as geography or mathematics would use textbooks. This drops the fun that could be available using real-life examples. 3D printing is trying to change this perception. In doing so, many benefits follow the introduction of 3D printing into STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics).

See It To Believe It

The first benefit – able to see an idea become reality. Quite often, learning about a subject would entail many drawings in a book, maybe a video if you are lucky. But it is not always easy to understand what something looks like. For example, learning about how the Earth’s tectonic plates move around and create earthquakes. Illustrations help, but actually creating physical objects to show students can help put it all into perspective. Using a printer, explaining complex systems is easy and kids will understand how common technologies interact with each other. Our world and how we interact with it isn’t all black and white. Students are realising that they are no longer limited to visualising complex topics, now they can feel and touch it too.

Maths And Engineering Now Play A Real Role

There are many times during math and engineering classes where students question whether or not a certain equation will be of any use. Well, in 3D printing, an object first needs to be designed in some type of CAD software. This often requires someone to have a fair bit of math knowledge to understand everything. It forces the student to use the knowledge they have learnt in maths and engineering subjects and apply them to a project. On the other side, students can replicate a problem or project they are busy with to help get clearer understanding of the problem as a whole.

Students Become The Creator

an Image showing several objects made with PPSF plastic

As the saying goes, “give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime”. The same is applied in education. From the previous point, making use of a 3D printer in a classroom means that the students can now be in charge to what the outcome of a problem. Students will have the opportunity to create their own objects, helping to boost their creativity. Also with the help of products such as filament extruders, students can now test out different materials for different results. This can result in unexpected successes and failures. Both of which can help contribute to a student’s progress in learning a particular topic or subject.

Reducing On-Screen Time

The introduction of internet was immense in education. It turned a culture from saying, “I guess we’ll never know to answer to that question” to “Just Google it”. Students can learning an extraordinary amount of new topics on the internet with ease. However, that ease leads to an increase on how long the child spends on the computer, i.e. an increase of on-screen time. The introduction of 3D printers means that children will become more interactive with something physical as opposed to something on the computer. Parents concerned about their child’s health, as glued to computer screen all day can lead to headaches and eyestrain. 3D-learning is a way to let kids use their imaginations to build or assemble collections of 3D printable objects that will keep them engaged in the real world and learning too.

What Subjects Can Benefit From 3D Printing and How

A 3D Printed Mini Help Canal House by Local Makers
A 3D Printed Mini Help Canal House by Local Makers
  • Mathematics – Math students can print out “problems” to solve in their own learning spaces, from scale models to city infrastructural design challenges.
  • Geography – Raw data can now be turned into objects to help with: population growth, erosion effects or even how mountains are formed. Production of topography, demographic, or population maps in 3D is changing the way students are learning geography.
  • History – Fossils and other artifacts can now be printed. This allows students to explore and understand the past in a real and more concrete way. These replicas can be manipulated more easily than precious archaeological artifacts and produced at reasonable costs.
  • Biology / Chemistry – Students can print out 3D models of molecules, cells, viruses, organs, and other critical biological artifacts. The 3D printed reproduction allows the pupils, especially the most kinesthetic of them, to understand a process or how it works.
  • Architecture – Most of architectural sketches and mock-ups are now designed with specialized CAD-software. This allows students to materialize their ideas. This can save hours on creating a study mockup and therefore save time to redo and improve their idea.
  • Design – Design programs are based on sketching and then producing these ideas in a design studio or lab. This is to get the whole process from a sketch to a final product. Design teachers have often stated that the development of CAD programs or 3D modelling software are not always the best. This is because it will lead to students spending more time in the virtual environment than learning from the studio and from practical workshops.

The Future of 3D Printing in Education

It is easy to see how 3D printing and filament extrusion will benefit the education sector. Students will start enjoying their subjects more often. 3D printing as a whole will become more mainstream and better adopted. When combining these two, it will lead to a society advancing its technology and problem solving. In the next five to ten years, students will be looking back at 3D printers the way we looked at calculators at school, except with a smile knowing that he or she is about to turn an idea into reality.

Testing PAEK – Is It Any Good?

Here at 3Devo, we really enjoying testing a variety of different filaments. Last week we were about to test some PAEK. As you may or may not know, PAEK is a family of semi-crystalline thermoplastics with high-temperature stability and high mechanical strength. We were lucky enough to test some AvaSpire AV-621 from Solvay (provided by ALBIS PLASTIQUE France). Catchy name, but is it any good? This article will cover all you need to know about PAEK, and how it performed in our tests.
_

General Information

 

Image 3devo – PAEK material provided by ALBIS Plastique France

As mentioned PAEK, or polyaryletherketone, is a family of semi-crystalline thermoplastics. In this family you will find:

  • Polyetherketone (PEK)
  • Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)
  • Polyetherketoneketone (PEKK)
  • Polyetheretherketoneketone (PEEKK)
  • Polyetherketoneetherketoneketone (PEKEKK)

Polyaryletherketone (PAEK) was first prepared in the early 1970s, but results and the overall process was somewhat limited. PEEK was the first thermoplastic to go large scale in 1977, where ICI used polyetherification reactions to create the polymer. In 1981, Victrex of Lancashire, England, introduced PEEK resins commercially. Next came PEK, introduced by BASF AG, the large German plastics company, which attempted to gain the total market share, eventually stopping all production of PEKEKK resins. This left Victrex as the only supplier of PEK resins in the world.

In the end, PEEK’s growth rates started to soar, mainly due to its high mechanical strength and chemical resistance. From vehicles, to aircrafts, to most electronics and medical applications, more and more suppliers started to enter the market. These suppliers include:

Below is a list of some of the advantages and disadvantages of using PAEK:

Advantages

  • Highly fire-resistant
  • Good chemical resistance
  • Can be used for high temperature applications
  • Excellent mechanical and dielectric properties

Disadvantages

  • Relatively high cost material
  • Anisotropic
  • High temperature molding and extrusion required

 

Tests

In our first attempt to create PAEK filament we used the AV-621 NT grade produced by AvaSpire with a melting point of 340°C, which we pre-dried at 150°C for 4 hours. The first step in the extrusion process was using PX2 cleaning purge (with a temperature range of 280-420°C) as a transition material, in order to be able to raise the temperature of all heaters to 380°C.

paek-test-1
Filling up the NEXT TEST Advanced Extruder, then running the test

The first thing we noticed while extruding with an overall temperature of 380°C, was the large amount of air bubbles in the filament. This could mean two things, either the granulate was not dry enough, or the overall temperature is too high. Lowering the overall temperature by 10°C improved the quality a lot, but now we faced nozzle lip buildup as you can see in the picture below:

paek-test-3
Nozzle lip buildup

Some polymers tend to have this problem, and it causes major surface roughness of the filament. In this case, the buildup was reduced by increasing the temperature of the front heater.

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A little rough around the edges

In the end we managed to create a spool of PAEK with a filament thickness of 1.75mm, but the surface of the filament was still on the rough side. This means we will keep on looking for better settings of the Next Advanced Extruder, but at least the machine has now proved its ability to create PAEK filament. This adds up in the list of successfully tested high-end polymers, along with materials such as PEEK and PEKK.

All You Need to Know About PEKK

Here at 3Devo we really enjoy trying out new polymers. Most of them have different functions and qualities that make them unique. This week we had a look at PEKK, or Polyetherketoneketone. This semicrystalline polymer, shows off both a sound structural performance in high temperature and a strong chemical resistance. These positive qualities make it very useful in various fields, from medicine to aerospace.

Before 2011, PEKK’s main use was for the production of thermoplastic composites. It was sold in limited quantities to a few small compounding companies. These companies offered PEKK in various melting processes, as well as other specialty and composite processes. However, in 2011, Arkema began industrial PEKK production making it more accessible, so let us take a closer look into what makes this polymer so unique.

Overview

PEKK, the multi-use polymer (image via ptonline)
  • PEKK is a part of the High Performance of Polyaryletherketone (PAEK) polymer family.
  • Glass transition temperature of 162°C (323.6°F)
  • The melting temperature for the PEKK homo-polymer is around 400°C
  • Slow crystallization rate
  • Manufacturers and distributors: ArkemaVeloxRTP and Cytec
  • Brand names: Kepstan and RTP

PEEK vs PEKK

Unlike PEEK, PEKK displays both amorphous and crystalline material properties. This makes PEKK quite interesting. Thanks to its unique mechanical, physical and chemical properties, PEKK lends itself to a broader range of uses than PEEK:

  • Up to 80% greater compression strength than PEEK
  • Wider processing window of parameters than PEEK

Unique Qualities

  • High strength and toughness
  • Chemical resistance
  • Easy processing
  • Lower moulded-in stresses
  • Greater dimensional stability
  • Remains transparent even at higher operating temperatures
  • Improved flow characteristics (due to an extremely slow rate of crystallisation)

According to Tim Spahr of Arkema’s Corporate Research in North America, “These properties allow for lower processing temperatures and the ability to process the Kepstan® 6000 Series (one of their products) copolymers polymers as either amorphous or semi-crystalline structures, depending on processing technologies and cooling conditions.” He also added, “They can be injection molded and extruded as an amorphous polymer without the need for quenching.”

Real-world Applications

Medical

A patient-specific OsteoFab cranial implant 3D-printed by OPM. (Image courtesy of OPM.)

Oxford Performance Materials, always popular with their advances in developing of applications, are now using PEKK to improve infections related to artificial hips, knees, and other implanted devices. In February 2014, OPM became the first company to receive FDA clearance. This was for the manufacturing of patient-specific 3D printed polymeric implants for a line of cranial prosthesis as shown above.

Aerospace

The 3D manufactured part — a black bracket holding the instrument’s fiber-optic cables (Image courtesy of NASA)

NASA is also not wanting to be left out of the 3D-printing world. They of course have many projects that involve 3D printing, but last year a 3D printed part received a lot of attention as part of their latest ICESat-2 project. The project aims to examine and measure changes in ice-sheet elevations, sea-ice thicknesses, and global vegetation in Greenland and the Antarctic. Stratasys had to develop a bracket for this project for the sole purpose of space travel. PEKK made its debut in space as part of the satellite, allowing for this central bracket component to be only the second 3D printed part to go into space so far.

Military

Military uses can be plentiful thanks to its robust structure (image via 3dprint.com)

The military will also be using PEKK’s heat and chemical resistance and its ability to withstand heavy mechanical weights for various uses out in the field. For example, a plastic guard that prevents light emitted from a flashlight from exposing a soldier’s location.

Our Tests with PEKK

We decided to use a bag of the Kepstan® 6000 series copolymers, as it offers offer a low melting point and has a slow crystallization rate. We used the Kepstan 6001 PF variant.

Kepstan 6001 PF powder

Like PEEK, the transition material played a key role throughout the PEKK extrusion process.

Extruding the filament on the Advanced Level Extruder

This time we used a different high temperature purging compound: Asaclean PX2 grade (280 Celcius up to 420 Celcius), to reach the desired temperature range for PEKK (330 Celcius up to 345 Celcius).

The finished result!

By pressure feeding the PEKK powder in the hopper of the Advanced Level Extruder, the cooling fans at 30% and the screw speed at 7RPM, we had a good time with the unique filament. Successfully we extruded 2.85mm, which will be tested any time soon by one of our clients. PEKK offers a lot of advantages to say PEEK or other polymers, but it truly stands out in real-world applications. Hopefully more industry sectors can see the potential of this useful polymer.

Polystyrene – The Multi-Purpose 3D-Printing Filament

What is Polystyrene?

First of all, polystyrene (PS) is a thermoplastic. General-purpose polystyrene is clear, hard, and rather brittle. It comes in two forms: a rigid foam material and a typical solid plastic (i.e foam or solid). First discovered in 1839 by Eduard Simon, an apothecary from Berlin, it was dubbed styrol. It then evolved over years. After about 80 years later, macromolecules were discovered when styrol was heated via a chain reaction thanks to German organic chemist Hermann Staudinger. Eventually, this led to the substance receiving its present name, polystyrene.

Dow Chemical Company then invented a proprietary process to make their trademarked and well-known PS foam product “styrofoam” in 1941. Throughout the years, though, the thermoplastic has not been the most favourable in environmental organisations (due to its slow degrading process). It is not hard to deny this fact too, as almost anyone can walk outside and see some form of polystyrene trash on the ground.

Discarded polystyrene cup, one of the more unpopular uses of the material

To make polystyrene, distillation of hydrocarbon fuels is need to create lighter groups called “fractions”. Some of which are combined with other catalysts to produce plastics.  As a result, the polymerization process creates the PS we all know today. However, it does come in many forms. Much like other plastics, such as PETG and TPU, it also has a whole range of uses.

Commons Types and Uses

Many people first think of the soft objects polystyrene is used for (such as cups or packaging), but it is actually seen in many other forms:

Sheet or molded polystyrene

CD Case made from polystyrene

Objects here are usually created using thermoforming (vacuum forming) or injection molding:

  • Disposable plastic cutlery and dinnerware
  • CD cases
  • Smoke detector housing
  • License plate frames
  • Petri dishes
  • Test tubes

Foams

The foam type is great for packaging.

Polystyrene foams are good thermal insulators and are therefore often used as:

  • Building insulation materials
  • Ornamental pillars
  • Packaging

Expanded polystyrene (EPS)

How would be ship electronics without it?

Expanded polystyrene (EPS) is a rigid and tough, closed-cell foam. It is usually white and made of pre-expanded beads, therefore it makes sense to see it in objects like:

  • Trays, plates and bowls
  • Fish boxes

Extruded polystyrene foam

Extruded polystyrene foam (XPS) consists of closed cells, and is most commonly seen in crafts and model building.

 

Common Characteristics

Generally Polystyrene (PS) is an amorphous, glassy polymer that is generally rigid and relatively inexpensive. Unfilled polystyrene has a sparkle appearance and is often referred to as crystal PS or general purpose polystyrene (GPPS). High impact polystyrene grades (HIPS) is produced by adding rubber or butadiene copolymer. Therefore, this increases the toughness and impact strength of the polymer. Other qualities include:

  • High surface qualities
  • Generally non-toxic and odorless
  • Good electric insulator
  • Flammable
  • Shock-resistance
  • Good pressing results
  • Ideal for thermoforming
  • Polished or mat surface
  • Approved for food-contact (although some studies have reported “potential health impacts from polystyrene foam food packaging associated with its production)

 

Advantages and Disadvantages

Pros

  • Inexpensive
  • Readily available
  • White in colour
  • Easy to sand, glue, cut and paint

Cons

  • Flammable, but retarded grades available
  • Inert (i.e. doesn’t react particularly well with either acidic or basic solutions)
  • Poor solvent resistance, attacked by many chemicals
  • Homopolymers are brittle
  • Subject to stress and environmental cracking
  • Poor thermal stability

 

Extruding and 3D Printing

We over at 3devo decided to try out extruding some polystyrene thanks to the NEXT 1.0 filament extruder.

 

Top Left: PS granules used. Top Right: The PS granules in the hopper. Bottom Left: PS filament being extruded with the NEXT 1.0. Bottom Right: The finished filament!

You can email sales@3devo.com for more information about this testing. As a result, the completed filament was a great success, very easy to extrude thanks to the aircooling (via the fans) to keep it from overheating. Below is a short video of the whole process:

But what about 3D printing using PS? Well, High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) is great for this. This is s a tough durable material, similar to the popular ABS. While it may not be the cheapest option, it does use Limonene as a solvent. The result is a slightly lemon-like smell to the finished product. The heater element of your 3D printer needs to be controlled quite finely with this material otherwise there will be a fair degree of warping as the hot material is placed on the cooling layer. But, you should be good with printing smaller parts though, as the speed of printing should be just fine to prevent warping.

3D Printing with HIPS (via Vexmatech)

In the end, polystyrene is a very interesting thermoplastic. With quite a range of characteristics and uses, it’s easy to see why it has become so popular. And, although it’s so similar to say ABS, its positive qualities such as its good impact resistance and ease of finishing make it a strong contender against the other plastics out there.

 

 

TPU – The 3D-Printing Polymer With An Added Twist

Since 1937, this robust polymer has been making waves among the polymer communities. With its incredible durability, toughness and ease of processing, TPU has the advantages of rubber and plastic. This article will explain why this best-of-both worlds polymer is so useful.

What is TPU?

TPU in its granular form.

TPU, also known as Thermoplastic polyurethane, has been around even before World War II. However, its uses range from sporting goods to medical devices, from phone covers to Aerospace Surface Protection. To create this polymer in a lab, simply create a polyaddition reaction between a diisocyanate and one or more diols, well maybe not too simple, but after that a unique category of plastic emerges.

Uses of TPU

It is used in many sporting goods, including Air Jordans.

Below are some popular uses of TPU:

  • Sportswear (shoes)
  • Wire and cable coating
  • Hydraulic seals and hoses
  • Inflatable rafts
  • Phone cases
  • Medical tubing

As you can see, TPU is mainly used where flexibility plays a key role. However, it is not just flexible. Below are some other advantages of this filament.

Advantages of the Flexible Filament

TPU has many popular qualities making it great for a range of uses

You can think of TPU as a hybrid material, with a mix between hard plastic and soft silicon. When it comes to 3D-printing, usually ABS and PLA are used as the industry standard. However, if you are looking to create bending prototypes, these two fall short. TPU on the other hand is very flexible in nature. It can bend easily without affecting its design, durability and strength, with it even coming with a mild “self-healing” ability.

TPU vs Popular 3D-printing Polymers

TPU works well if you are looking for flexibility, very similar to PETG, a polymer we featured in a previous article. Lets see how it compares with PETG as well as the other popular 3D-printing materials, ABS and PLA.

 

Filament Special Properties Uses Strength Flexi-

bility

Dura-

bility

Print

Skills

Print

Temp.

(˚C)

Bed

Temp.

(˚C)

ABS Durable, Impact Resistant Functional Parts 2/3 2/3 3/3 2/3 210 – 250 50 – 100
PLA Easy to Print, Biodegradable Consumer Products 2/3 1/3 2/3 1/3 180 – 230 No
PETG Flexible, Durable All-Rounder 2/3 3/3 3/3 2/3 220 – 235 No
TPU Extremely Flexible, Rubber-Like Elastic Parts,

Wearables

1/3 3/3 2/3 3/3 225 – 235 No

Values courtesy of all3dp.

How Hard is TPU?

The flexible polymer also comes in different forms, most notable by the letter at the end, A or D, which refers to its hardness. This hardness is measured by different types of Shore hardness scales (for example Shore A00, Shore A and Shore D). The different Shore Hardness scales measures the resistance of a material to indentation.

 

  • Shore A00 Scale – measures rubbers and gels that are very soft.
  • Shore A Hardness Scale  measures the hardness rubbers that range in hardness from very soft to almost no flexibility at all, essentially the middle-ground scale.
  • Last is the Shore D Hardness Scale measures the hardness of hard rubbers, semi-rigid plastics and hard plastics.
Image courtesy of Smooth-On.

As you can see from the chart, these scales can overlap. For example, shoe heels with a Shore Hardness of 70A can also be converted into a Shore hardness of 22D.

Our results with TPU

This polymer is great, and we really enjoy its creative uses. We were able to obtain some TPU Shore 75A, so a bit harder than the heel of a formal shoe.

TPU Shore 75A in its granular form, then extruded through the NEXT 1.0, and the resultant filament.

Doing some tests on the filament, we wanted to see how well it would extrude in our NEXT Advanced Level Filament Extruder. The results were better than we expected. As you can see in the images above, the filament extruded quite easily, resulting in a clean egg-shell white roll of filament.

A roll of filament was extruded, and a 3D-printed 3devo logo for testing.

Once the roll was complete, we decided to see how it would handle 3D printing. Going for a simple 3devo logo, we also wanted to test its flexibility. True to its hardness rating, it was still able to deform a bit, pretty neat!

In the end, this polymer serves a great purpose at providing a filament that is very easy to print with, but also durable and very flexible. If you are looking for a filament that is a combines the benefits of rubber and plastic, then TPU is for you.